About Europe

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Europe_orthographic_Caucasus_Urals_boundary.svg

About Europe

Europe_polar_stereographic_Caucasus_Urals_boundary.svgEupe  is a continent that comprises the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia. It is generally divided from Asia by thewatershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Blackand Aegean Seas.[3]

Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary, as the primarilyphysiographic term “continent” also incorporates cultural and political elements.

Europe is the world’s second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth’s surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe’s approximately 50 countries, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up 40% of the continent (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 739-743 million or about 11% of the world’s population.[4] The most commonly used currency is the euro.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.[5] It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and the overwhelming majority of Asia. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain around the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe, and eventually the wider world. Demographic growth meant that, by 1900, Europe’s share of the world’s population was 25%.[6]

Both world wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.[7] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain betweenNATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Unionin Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the revolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Union nowadays has growing influence over its member countries. Many European countries are members of the Schengen Area, which abolishes border and immigration controls among its members.

The use of the term “Europe” has developed gradually throughout history.[10][11] In antiquity, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the River Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia.[12]Europe’s eastern frontier was defined in the 1st century by geographer Strabo at the River Don.[13] The Book of Jubilees described the continents as the lands given by Noah to his three sons; Europe was defined as stretching from the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar, separating it from North Africa, to the Don, separating it from Asia.[14]

A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantiumand Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianized western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy.[15] The concept is one of the lasting legacies of the Carolingian Renaissance: “Europa” often figures in the letters of Charlemagne’s court scholar, Alcuin.[16] This division—as much cultural as geographical—was used until the Late Middle Ages, when it was challenged by the Age of Discovery.[17][18][why?] The problem of redefining Europe was finally resolved in 1730 when, instead of waterways, the Swedish geographer and cartographer von Strahlenberg proposed the Ural Mountains as the most significant eastern boundary, a suggestion that found favour in Russia and throughout Europe.[19]

Europe is now generally defined by geographers as the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, with its boundaries marked by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe’s limits to the far east are usually taken to be the Urals, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea; to the southeast, including the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.[20]

Islands are generally grouped with the nearest continental landmass, hence Iceland is generally considered to be part of Europe, while the nearby island of Greenland is usually assigned to North America. Nevertheless, there are some exceptions based on sociopolitical and cultural differences.Cyprus is closest to Anatolia (or Asia Minor), but is usually considered part of Europe both culturally and politically and currently is a member state of the EU. Malta was considered an island of North Africa for centuries.[21]

Sometimes, the word ‘Europe’ is used in a geopolitically limiting way[22] to refer only to the European Union or, even more exclusively, a culturally defined core. On the other hand, the Council of Europe has 47 member countries, and only 28 member states are in the EU.[23] In addition, people in the British Isles may refer to “continental” or “mainland” Europe as Europe.[24]

Etymology

Europa and the bull on a Greek vase. Tarquinia Museum, c. 480 BC

In ancient Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess whom Zeus abducted after assuming the form of a dazzling white bull. He took her to the island of Crete where she gave birth to Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon. For Homer, Europe (Ancient Greek: ΕὐρώπηEurṓpē; see also List of Greek place names) was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation.

The etymology of Europe is uncertain.[25] One theory suggests that it is derived from the Greek εὐρύς (eurus), meaning “wide, broad”[26] and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-), meaning “eye, face, countenance”,[27] hence Eurṓpē, “wide-gazing”, “broad of aspect” (compare with glaukōpis (γλαυκῶπις ‘grey-eyed’) Athena or boōpis (βοὠπις ‘ox-eyed’) Hera). Broad has been an epithet of Earth itself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion.[28]Another theory suggests that it is based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning “to go down, set”[29] (in reference to the sun),cognate to Phoenician ‘ereb “evening; west” and Arabic Maghreb, Hebrew ma’arav (see also Erebus, PIE *h1regʷos, “darkness”). However, Martin Litchfield West states that “phonologically, the match between Europa’s name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor”.[30]

Whatever the origin of the name of the mythological figure, Εὐρώπη is first used as a geographical term in the 6th century BC, by Greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River (the modern Rioni) in the Caucasus, a convention still followed by Herodotus in the 5th century BC.[31] But the convention received by the Middle Ages and surviving into modern usage is that of the Roman era used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius,[32] Strabo[33] and Ptolemy,[34] who took the Tanais (the modern Don River) as the boundary. The term “Europe” is first used for a cultural sphere in the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. From that time, the term designated the sphere of influence of the Western Church, as opposed to both the Eastern Orthodox churches and to the Islamic world. The modern convention, enlarging the area of “Europe” somewhat to the east and the southeast, develops in the 19th century.

Most major world languages use words derived from “Europa” to refer to the “continent” (peninsula). Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲); a similar Chinese-derived term Ōshū (欧州?) is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the Japanese name of the European Union, Ōshū Rengō (欧州連合?), despite the katakana Yōroppa (ヨーロッパ?) being more commonly used. However, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan (land of the Franks) is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa.[35]

History

Main article: History of Europe

Prehistory

Main article: Prehistoric Europe

Ġgantija, Malta

The Lady of Vinča, neolithic pottery fromSerbia

Stonehenge, England

The Nebra sky disk fromBronze AgeGermany

Homo erectus georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia, is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe.[36]Other hominid remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain.[37] Neanderthal man (named after the Neandertal valley in Germany) appeared in Europe 150,000 years ago and disappeared from the fossil record about 28,000 BC, with this extinction probably due to climate change, and their final refuge being present-day Portugal. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared in Europe around 43 to 40 thousand years ago.[38]

The European Neolithic period—marked by the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock, increased numbers of settlements and the widespread use of pottery—began around 7000 BC in Greece and the Balkans, probably influenced by earlier farming practices in Anatoliaand the Near East.[39] It spread from the Balkans along the valleys of the Danube and the Rhine (Linear Pottery culture) and along theMediterranean coast (Cardial culture). Between 4500 and 3000 BC, these central European neolithic cultures developed further to the west and the north, transmitting newly acquired skills in producing copper artefacts. In Western Europe the Neolithic period was characterised not by large agricultural settlements but by field monuments, such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds and megalithic tombs.[40] TheCorded Ware cultural horizon flourished at the transition from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic. During this period giant megalithicmonuments, such as the Megalithic Temples of Malta and Stonehenge, were constructed throughout Western and Southern Europe.[41][42]The European Bronze Age began c. 3200 BC in Greece.[43]

The European Iron Age began around 1200 BC.[44] Iron Age colonisation by the Greeks and Phoenicians gave rise to early Mediterraneancities. Early Iron Age Italy and Greece from around the 8th century BC gradually gave rise to historical Classical antiquity.

Classical antiquity

Main article: Classical antiquity
See also: Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome

The Parthenon in Athens

Ancient Greece had a profound influence on Western civilisation. Western democratic and individualistic culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece.[45] The Greeks invented the polis, or city-state, which played a fundamental role in their concept of identity.[46] These Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by European philosophers and idealists. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, Socrates and Plato; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer;[45] in medicine with Hippocrates and Galen; and in science with Pythagoras,Euclid and Archimedes.[47][48][49]

The Roman Empire at its greatest extent

Another major influence came on Europe that would impact Western civilisation from the Roman Empire which left its mark on law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, government and many more aspects in western civilisation.[50] During the pax romana, the Roman Empire expanded to encompass the entireMediterranean Basin and much of Europe.[51]

Stoicism influenced Roman emperors such as Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, who all spent time on the Empire’s northern border fighting Germanic, Pictish and Scottish tribes.[52][53] Christianity was eventually legitimised by Constantine I after three centuries of imperial persecution.

Early Middle Ages

Main articles: Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages
See also: Dark Ages (historiography) and Age of Migrations
Europe c. 650
Charlemagne’s empire in 814:     Frankia,      Tributaries

During the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of change arising from what historians call the “Age of Migrations”. There were numerous invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Goths, Vandals, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Slavs, Avars, Bulgars and, later on, the Vikings, Pechenegs, Cumans and Magyars.[51] Renaissance thinkers such as Petrarch would later refer to this as the “Dark Ages”.[54] Isolated monastic communities were the only places to safeguard and compile written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from Europe.[55]

From the 7th century, Byzantine history was greatly affected by the rise of Islam and the Caliphates. Muslim Arabs first invaded historically Roman territory under Abū Bakr, first Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, who entered Roman Syria and Roman Mesopotamia. Under Umar, the second Caliph, the Muslims decisively conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as Roman Palestine, Roman Egypt, and parts of Asia Minor and Roman North Africa. This trend continued under Umar’s successors and under the Umayyad Caliphate, which conquered the rest of Mediterranean North Africa and most of the Iberian Peninsula. Over the next centuries Muslim forces were able to take further European territory, including Cyprus, Malta, Crete, Sicily and parts of southern Italy.[56] In the East, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in the 10th century.[57]

The Muslim conquest of Hispania began when the Moors (mostly Berbers with some Arabs) invaded the Christian Visigothic kingdom of Iberia in the year 711, under their Berber leader Tariq ibn Ziyad. They landed at Gibraltar on 30 April and worked their way northward. Tariq’s forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim rule — save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees, with the exception of the Basque Banu Qasi Muslim dynasty. This territory, under the Arabic name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire.

Roland pledges fealty toCharlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor
Delegations of Croats andSerbs at Byzantine court ofBasil I

The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople (717) weakened the Umayyad dynasty and reduced their prestige. After their success in over-running Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at theBattle of Poitiers in 732, though they continued to raid and capture cities as far as Avignon. The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the ‘Abbāsids and most of the Umayyad clan massacred.

A surviving Umayyad prince, Abd al-Rahman I, escaped to Iberia and founded a new Umayyad dynasty in the Emirate of Cordoba, (756). Charles Martel’s son,Pippin the Short retook Narbonne, and his grandson Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. The Umayyads in Iberia proclaimed themselves caliphs in 929.

During the Dark Ages, the Western Roman Empire fell under the control of various tribes. The Germanic and Slav tribes established their domains over Western and Eastern Europe respectively.[58] Eventually the Frankish tribes were united under Clovis I.[59] Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed “Holy Roman Emperor” by the Pope in 800. This led in 962 to the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, which eventually became centred in the German principalities of central Europe.[60]

East Central Europe saw the creation of Slavic states and the adoption of Christianity (circa 1000 AD). Powerful West Slavic state of Great Moravia spread its territory all the way south to the Balkan Slavs. Moravia reached its largest territorial extent under Svatopluk I and caused a series of armed conflicts with East Francia. Further south, placed between the Frankish Empire and the Byzantines, the first South Slavic states emerged in the late 7th and 8th century: First Bulgarian Empire, Serbian Principality (later Kingdom and Empire) and Duchy of Croatia (later Kingdom of Croatia).

The predominantly Greek speaking Eastern Roman Empire retroactively became known in the West as the Byzantine Empire. Its capital was Constantinople. Emperor Justinian I presided over Constantinople’s first golden age: he established a legal code, funded the construction of the Hagia Sophia and brought the Christian church under state control.[61] Fatally weakened by the sack of Constantinople in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade,[62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] Byzantium fell in 1453 when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.[71][72][73]

Middle Ages

Main articles: High Middle Ages, Late Middle Ages and Middle Ages
See also: Medieval demography

The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the lack of safety on the mainland trading routes, made possible the development of major commercial routes along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In this context, the growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave the Maritime Republics a leading role in the European scene.

Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade

The Middle Ages on the mainland were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy. Feudalism developed in France in the Early Middle Ages and soon spread throughout Europe.[74] A struggle for influence between the nobility and the monarchy in England led to the writing of the Magna Carta and the establishment of a parliament.[75] The primary source of culture in this period came from the Roman Catholic Church. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe.[74]

The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages. An East-West Schism in 1054 split the former Roman Empire religiously, with the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Catholic Church in the former Western Roman Empire. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade against Muslims occupying Jerusalem and the Holy Land.[76] In Europe itself, the Church organised the Inquisitionagainst heretics. In Spain, the Reconquista concluded with the fall of Granada in 1492, ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula.[77]

The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khanin 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Pechenegs and theCuman-Kipchaks, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north and temporarily halted the expansion of the Rus’ state to the south and east.[78] Like many other parts of Eurasia, these territories were overrun by the Mongols.[79] The invaders, who became known asTatars, were mostly Turkic-speaking peoples under Mongol suzerainty. They established the state of the Golden Horde with headquarters in Crimea, which later adopted Islam as a religion and ruled over modern-day southern and central Russia for more than three centuries.[80][81] After the collapse of Mongol dominions, the first Romanian states (principalities) emerged in the 14th century: Moldova and Walachia. Previously, these territories were under the successive control of Pechenegs and Cumans.[82]

The Great Famine of 1315–1317 was the first crisis that would strike Europe in the late Middle Ages.[83] The period between 1348 and 1420 witnessed the heaviest loss. The population of France was reduced by half.[84][85] Medieval Britain was afflicted by 95 famines,[86] and France suffered the effects of 75 or more in the same period.[87] Europe was devastated in the mid-14th century by the Black Death, one of the most deadlypandemics in human history which killed an estimated 25 million people in Europe alone—a third of the European population at the time.[88]

The plague had a devastating effect on Europe’s social structure; it induced people to live for the moment as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353). It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and led to increased persecution of Jews, foreigners, beggars and lepers.[89]The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 18th century.[90] During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.[91]

Early modern period

Main article: Early modern period
See also: Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Age of Discovery

The School of Athens by Raphael: Contemporaries such as Michelangelo andLeonardo da Vinci (centre) are portrayed as classical scholars

The Renaissance was a period of cultural change originating in Florence and later spreading to the rest of Europe. in the 14th century. The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical Greek and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries, often translated from Arabic into Latin.[92][93][94] The Renaissance spread across Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the flowering of art,philosophy, music, and the sciences, under the joint patronage of royalty, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church, and an emerging merchant class.[95][96][97] Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento andcinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci.[98][99]

Political intrigue within the Church in the mid-14th century caused the Western Schism. During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignonand one in Rome—claimed rulership over the Church. Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy’s spiritual authority had suffered greatly.[100]

Martin Luther initiated theProtestant Reformation

The Church’s power was further weakened by the Protestant Reformation (1517–1648), initially sparked by the works of German theologian Martin Luther, a result of the lack of reform within the Church. The Reformation also damaged the Holy Roman Empire’s power, as German princes became divided between Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths.[101] This eventually led to the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), which crippled the Holy Roman Empire and devastated much of Germany, killing between 25 and 40 percent of its population.[102] In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia, France rose to predominance within Europe.[103]

The 17th century in southern, central and eastern Europe was a period of general decline.[104] Central and Eastern Europe experienced more than 150 famines in a 200-year period between 1501 to 1700.[105] From the 15th to 18th centuries, when the disintegrating khanates of the Golden Horde were conquered by Russia, Tatars from the Crimean Khanate frequently raided Eastern Slavic lands to capture slaves.[106] The Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Turks into Europe, and marked the political hegemony of the Habsburg dynasty in central Europe. The Nogai Horde and Kazakh Khanate had frequently raided the Slavic-speaking areas of Russia, Ukraine and Poland for at least a hundred years until the Russian expansion and conquest of most of northern Eurasia (i.e. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia).

The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development.[107] Among the great figures of the Western scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries were Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Isaac Newton.[108] According to Peter Barrett, “It is widely accepted that ‘modern science’ arose in the Europe of the 17th century (towards the end of the Renaissance), introducing a new understanding of the natural world.”[92] In the 15th century, Portugal and Spain, two of the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world.[109][110] Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492 and Vasco da Gama opened the ocean route to the East in 1498, and soon after the Spanish and Portuguese began establishing colonial empires in the Americas and Asia.[111] France, the Netherlands and England soon followed in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.

18th and 19th centuries

Main article: Modern history
See also: Industrial Revolution, French Revolution and Age of Enlightenment

Napoleon’s retreat from Russia in 1812. Napoleon’s Grande Armée had lost about half a million men.

The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the 18th century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts.[112][113][114]Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy’s monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic as a result of which the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror.[115] Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power in the aftermath of the French Revolution and established the First French Empire that, during the Napoleonic Wars, grew to encompass large parts of Europe before collapsing in 1815 with the Battle of Waterloo.[116][117] Napoleonic rule resulted in the further dissemination of the ideals of the French Revolution, including that of the nation-state, as well as the widespread adoption of the French models of administration, law, andeducation.[118][119][120] The Congress of Vienna, convened after Napoleon’s downfall, established a new balance of power in Europe centred on the five “Great Powers”: the UK, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia.[121] This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and the UK. These revolutions were eventually put down by conservative elements and few reforms resulted.[122] The year 1859 saw the unification of Romania, as a nation-state, from smaller principalities. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian empire was formed; and 1871 saw the unifications of both Italy and Germany as nation-states from smaller principalities.[123]

     Ottoman Europe in 1856

In parallel, the Eastern Question grew more complex ever since the Ottoman defeat in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire seemed imminent, the Great Powers struggled to safeguard their strategic and commercial interests in the Ottoman domains. The Russian Empire stood to benefit from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire and Britain perceived the preservation of the Ottoman Empire to be in their best interests. Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution and Greek War of Independence marked the birth of nationalism in the Balkans.[124] Formal recognition of the de facto independent principalities of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania ensued at the Congress of Berlin in 1878.

Marshall’s Temple Works, the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain

The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe. The invention and implementation of new technologies resulted in rapid urban growth, mass employment, and the rise of a new working class.[125] Reforms in social and economic spheres followed, including the first laws on child labour, the legalisation oftrade unions,[126] and the abolition of slavery.[127] In Britain, the Public Health Act of 1875 was passed, which significantly improved living conditions in many British cities.[128] Europe’s population increased from about 100 million in 1700 to 400 million by 1900.[129] The last major famine recorded in Western Europe, the Irish Potato Famine, caused death and mass emigration of millions of Irish people.[130] In the 19th century, 70 million people left Europe in migrations to various European colonies abroad and to the United States.[131]

20th century to the present

Main articles: Modern era and History of Europe
See also: World War I, Great Depression, Interwar period, World War II, Cold War and History of the European Union

  • Leaders of the Central Powers (left to right):
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany;
  • Kaiser and King Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary;
  • Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire;
  • Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria.

Two World Wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century. World War I was fought between 1914 and 1918. It started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by the Yugoslav nationalist[132] Gavrilo Princip.[133] Most European nations were drawn into the war, which was fought between the Entente Powers (France, Belgium, Serbia, Portugal, Russia, the United Kingdom, and later Italy, Greece, Romania, and the United States) and the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and theOttoman Empire). The War left more than 16 million civilians and military dead.[134] Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914 to 1918.[135]

Ruins of Guernica (1937). TheSpanish Civil War claimed the lives of over 500,000 people.

Partly as a result of its defeat Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution, which threw down the Tsarist monarchy and replaced it with the communist Soviet Union.[136] Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire collapsed and broke up into separate nations, and many other nations had their borders redrawn. The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I in 1919, was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions.[137]

Excess deaths in Russia over the course of World War I and the Russian Civil War (including the postwar famine) amounted to a combined total of 18 million.[138] In 1932–1933, under Stalin’s leadership, confiscations of grain by the Soviet authorities contributed to the second Soviet famine which caused millions of deaths;[139] surviving kulaks were persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour. Stalin was also responsible for the Great Purge of 1937–38 in which the NKVD executed 681,692 people;[140] millions of people were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[141]

Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred in the First World War and ‘loans’ to Germany played havoc in Europe in the late 1920s and 1930s. This and the Wall Street Crash of 1929 brought about the worldwide Great Depression. Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, Francisco Franco of Spain and Benito Mussolini of Italy in power.[142][143]

In 1933, Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to work towards his goal of building Greater Germany. Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in 1935 and 1936. In 1938, Austria became a part of Germany following the Anschluss. Later that year, following theMunich Agreement signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy, Germany annexed the Sudetenland, which was a part ofCzechoslovakia inhabited by ethnic Germans, and in early 1939, the remainder of Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, controlled by Germany, and the Slovak Republic. At the time, Britain and France preferred a policy of appeasement.

Burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944 or 45

With tensions mounting between Germany and Poland over the future of Danzig, the Germans turned to the Soviets, and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which allowed the Soviets to invade the Baltic states and parts of Poland and Romania. Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, prompting France and the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany on 3 September, opening the European Theatre of World War II.[144][145]The Soviet invasion of Poland started on 17 September and Poland fell soon thereafter. On 24 September, the Soviet Union attacked the Baltic countries and later, Finland. The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources. Around the same time, Germany moved troops into Denmark. The Phoney War continued.

In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries. France capitulated in June 1940. By August Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain, but failed to convince the Britons to give up.[146] In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the Operation Barbarossa.[147] On 7 December 1941 Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor drew the United States into the conflict as allies of the British Empire and other allied forces.[148][149]

The “Big Three” at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin

After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback. The Battle of Kursk, which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. In 1944, British and American forces invaded France in the D-Day landings, opening a new front against Germany. Berlin finally fell in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. The war was the largest and most destructive in human history, with 60 million dead across the world.[150] More than 40 million people in Europe had died as a result of World War II,[151] including between 11 and 17 million people who perished during the Holocaust.[152] The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people (mostly civilians) during the war, about half of all World War II casualties.[153] By the end of World War II, Europe had more than 40 million refugees.[154]Several post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe displaced a total of about 20 million people.[155]

The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began theintegration process of the European Union. (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry)

World War I and especially World War II diminished the eminence of Western Europe in world affairs. After World War II the map of Europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference and divided into two blocs, the Western countries and the communist Eastern bloc, separated by what was later called by Winston Churchill an “Iron Curtain”. The United States and Western Europe established the NATO alliance and later the Soviet Union and Central Europe established the Warsaw Pact.[156]

The two new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, became locked in a fifty-year long Cold War, centred on nuclear proliferation. At the same time decolonisation, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa.[7] In the 1980s the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachevand the Solidarity movement in Poland accelerated the collapse of the Eastern bloc and the end of the Cold War. Germany was reunited, after the symbolic fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the maps of Central and Eastern Europe were redrawn once more.[142]

European integration also grew after World War II. The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market.[157] In 1967 the EEC, European Coal and Steel Community andEuratom formed the European Community, which in 1993 became the European Union. The EU established a parliament, court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency.[158] In 2004 and 2007, more Central and Eastern European countries began joining, expanding the EU to its current size of 28 European countries, and once more making Europe a major economical and political centre of power.


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